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划考点:这就是为什么生在美国就是美国人的原因!(第246句))

美国现行法律制度里的出生公民权的渊源是英国普通法里的属地原则(Jus Soli),即一个人只要出生在美国“领土”上或者美国的领水和领空内,就自动获得美国国籍。有一年,在台北飞往洛杉矶的班机上,一位台湾孕妇在羊水已经破了的情况下,不停地问乘务员“有没有到美国”,大有不到美国坚决不生的劲头,为的就是让她的孩子拥有美国国籍。

但这个原则的演进过程是这样的:

1.1790年美国第一部国籍法(《1790年归化法案》)规定,只有品行良好的自由白人移民才可以归化为美国人。这就把当时人口中的相当一部分排除在外,主要是印第安人、白人契约奴、黑人奴隶和自由黑人。亚裔也同样没有资格归化为美国公民。在美国出生的人是否能自动获得美国公民权,实际上还是个悬而未决的问题。2.1844年的茱莉亚·林奇诉克拉克(Julia Lynch v. Clarke)一案中,在美国出生的爱尔兰人林奇获得美国国籍。出生公民权才真正通过判例在美国司法实践中得到明确的落实。(弱势白人可以获得美国国籍)3.1857年,美国国内关于奴隶制的分歧已经日益白热化,黑奴斯科特诉桑福德 (Dred Scott v. Sandford)要求自由一案正逢其时,成为整个国家政治走向的风向标,有人甚至认为该案是引起美国内战的关键原因之一。最终,主要由南方出身的大法官组成的最高法院判斯科特败诉。在联邦最高法院首席大法官坦尼(Roger Taney) 撰写的多数意见中,甚至认为即使斯科特是自由的,也不可能成为美国公民,赤裸裸地否定了黑人的公民权。这也反映了当时美国法律实践中保守势力之强大。4.1866年,美国国会通过《1866年民权法案》,明确规定:包括获得解放的黑人奴隶在内,“除了未被征税的印第安人外,所有在美国出生且非任何外国人势力的人”都是美国公民。(黑人可以获得美国国籍)5.新兴势力为了保护当时的弱势群体,提出宪法第十四修正案(1866)。经过在联邦立法机构内两年的努力,修正案最终于1868年得以通过,其中第一款写道:所有在合众国出生或归化合众国并受其管辖的人,都是合众国的和他们居住州的公民。任何一州,都不得制定或实施限制合众国公民的特权或豁免权的法律;不经正当法律程序,不得剥夺任何人的生命、自由或财产;在州管辖范围内,也不得拒绝给予任何人以平等法律保护。(印第安人和其他弱势人群可以获得美国国籍)6.现在:特朗普准备用行政命令废除这一法律规定。

今天的句子:In the U.S., birthright citizenship begins here, in the struggles of the marginalized and the despised to make this nation their own even as so many claimed that when it came to rights, it was a white man’s country. Most notorious among such denials of black citizenship was the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1857 decision in Scott v. Sandford, often referred to as the Dred Scott case.

思考题:What can we learn from the passage?(A) The Supreme Court overturned the denials of black citizenship in 1857.(B) The birthright citizenship originated from the fight of the underprivileged.(C) The decision of the Supreme Court denied the birthright citizenship.(D) The birthright citizenship begins with the white man’s country词汇突破:1.the marginalized 社会边缘人群2.the despised 被歧视的的人群=the underprivileged = 弱势人群3. notorious 臭名昭著的4. denials 否认(名词)5. referred to as 被称之为6.claim 声称 认为7. even as 即使解析:第一句:In the U.S., birthright citizenship begins here, in the struggles of the marginalized and the despised to make this nation their own even as so many claimed that when it came to rights, it was a white man’s country. 切分:1. In the U.S., 2.birthright citizenship begins here, 3.in the struggles of the marginalized and the despised4.to make this nation their own 5.even as so many claimed that 6.when it came to rights, it was a white man’s country. 参考译文:在美国,与生俱来的公民权从这里开始,从处于社会边缘地位的人和被歧视的人的斗争中开始,他们努力让这个国家变为自己的国家,即使许多人声称,当涉及到权利的时候,美国是一个白人的国家。第二句:Most notorious among such denials of black citizenship was the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1857 decision in Scott v. Sandford, often referred to as the Dred Scott case.

切分:1. Most notorious was the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1857 decision in Scott v. Sandford, 2. among such denials of black citizenship3.often referred to as the Dred Scott case.参考译文:在对黑人公民权的否认表达中,最臭名昭著的就是1857年美国最高法院在Scott诉Sandford一案中的决定。该案件常被称为Dred Scott案。What can we learn from the passage?(A) The Supreme Court overturned the denials of black citizenship in 1857.最高法院在1857年推翻了对于黑人公民权的否定偷换!(B) The birthright citizenship originated from the fight of the underprivileged.出生公民权源自弱势群体的斗争正确!同义替换!(C) The decision of the Supreme Court denied the birthright citizenship.最高法院的决定否定了出生公民权。(偷换!否定的是黑人的公民权!)(D) The birthright citizenship begins with the white man’s country(出生公民权开始于白人男子的国家)(偷换!开始于弱势群体的斗争!)

明天的句子:The event was the inaugural stop in Community Boost, a kind of roving technical college that Facebook plans to bring to at least 30 mid-sized U.S. cities this year. Each installment offers a few days of lectures, smaller “breakout” sessions, and one-on-one consultations, free for anyone who shows up. The goal, according to Facebook, is to teach business owners and employees the “digital skills” to make it online.思考题:It can be inferred from the text that _____(A)the Community Boost plans to bring Facebook to more cities.(B)the Facebook intends to boost the digital skills among more people.(C)the lectures are free for those who can do the consultations.(D) Community Boost is set to train Facebook on the digital skills.

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